What is PRP

PRP Platelet Rich Plasma

Platelet Growth Factor Stimulates Stem Cell Production

PRP (Platelet rich plasma) is defined as autologous blood with a concentration of platelets above baseline values.
- Average normal platelet count = 200,000/ul (normal range: 150,000 – 350,000/ul)
- PRP count= 1,000,000/ul (5x concentration)

[Platelet Count Prior to PRP Injection]

[Platelet Count After PRP]

[Blood components]

[After centrifugation]

Blood is made up of 4 components including plasma, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelets.
A normal blood would be made up of 93% red blood cell, 6% platelets and 1% white blood cell. Through the use of centrifuge,
the blood components are separated and the ratios are changed in PRP to 94% platelets and 5% red blood cell.

Platelets contain an abundance of growth factors which play a central role in blood clotting and initiate tissue healing including

  • Increase tissue regeneration
  • Decrease pain
  • Increase collagen (foundational component of all soft tissue)
  • Increase bone density
  • Increase angiogenesis (development of new blood cells)

Function of Growth Faxtors in PRP

Growth Factor
Function
Transforming Growth Factor-beta
(TGF-β)
  • Stimulates undifferentiated mesenchymal cell proliferation
  • Regulates endothelial, fibroblastic and osteoblastic mitogenesis
  • Regulates collagen synthesis and collagenase secretion
  • Regulates mitogenic effects of other growth factors
  • Stimulates endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis
  • Inhibits macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation
Platelet Derived Growth Factor
(PDGFa-b)
  • Mitogenetic for mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts
  • Stimulates chemotaxis and mitogenesis in fibroblasts/ smooth muscle cells
  • Regulates collagenase secretion and collagen synthesis
  • Stimulates macrophage and neutrophil chemotaxis
Epidermal Growth Factor
(EGF)
  • Stimulates endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis
  • Regulates collagenase secretion
  • Stimulates epithelial and mesenchymal mitogenesis
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
(VEGF)
  • Increases angiogenesis and vessel permeability
  • Stimulates mitogenesis for endothelial cells
Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor
(bFGF)
  • Promotes growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts
  • Mitogenetic for mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes and osteoblasts
Connective Tissue Growth Factor
(CTGF)
  • Promotes angiogenesis and cartilage regeneration
  • Promotes fibrosis and platelet adhesion